Lake Victoria Basin covers an area of 250,000 km2 with the lake taking 68,000 km2. The basin has a population of 35 - 40 million people, with rapidly growing secondary towns, which has resulted in:
Unplanned, sponteneous and unsustainable growth
Run-down and non-existent basic infrastructure and services
Significant negative impacts on environment, and importantly, the fragile ecosystem of the lake
The lake is major-transboundary resource for EAC countries with a high potential to accelerate the growth of the towns around it if well managed and the potential sustainably harnessed
In recognition of the challenges presented by rapid urbanization in the basin, the EAC formulated a framework to reverse the deteriorating conditions, through a ‘Protocol on Sustainable Development of the Lake Victoria Basin‘. By improving coverage as an indicator and increasing both water supply and sanitation coverage, the EAC would be achieving its objective in the water and sanitation sector as a key area of cooperation.
The scope of works in Phase II LVWATSAN Project Formulation include:
Detailed immediate-to-medium term designs for the 15 secondary towns, inclusive of topographic surveys
Projections for long term interventions
Capacity building plans
National policies, goals and institutional structure review
Validated Investment Plans
Preliminary design of long term programs
Estimated costs, financing and implementation schedule (Grant and loan financing to be separated in cost estimates assignment)
Social and environmental management plans and implementation manuals
M&E system to be designed for project progress and reporting system
And the studies to be undertaken include:
Development of alternative solutions and selection of the best intervention, based on multi-criteria analysis and preparation of statements of works and cost estimates
Sanitation options considering ECOSAN Principles, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal
Safe disposal of feacal matter and solid waste
Storm water drainage
Technical, financial and institutional capacity build-up
Strategies aimed at influencing policy and physical planning
Balance supply augmentation with demand management
Environmental Impact Assessment
Risk exposures and mitigation measures
The principal beneficiaries of the project will include
Un-served and under-served residents in the secondary urban centres, especially the poor, women and children
Water user groups as a consequence of being supported to get organized as part of the initiative
Local institutions and organizations responsible for service provision, which will benefit from enhanced capacity and more efficient operations
Other beneficiaries will be NGOs, CBOs and the newly formed utilities under the sector reforms process
Local agencies responsible for environmental monitoring
Local government bodies in areas of development planning and regulatory functions
Project Description
Between 2004 and 2007, in consultation with national and local authorities and local stakeholders, an initial assessment was undertaken to identify WATSAN investments and related capacity building needs in 30 preselected secondary towns, through questionnaires, interviews and meetings. The assessment concluded that the towns needed urgent strategic WATSAN Initiatives
The development objective of the project was to support secondary urban centres in the Lake Victoria Region to enable them to achieve the water and sanitation related MDGs and, generally, to contribute to an equitable and sustainable development – economic, social and environmental – for the benefit of the people living in the area. The specific objectives were to:
Support pro-poor water and sanitation investments in the secondary urban centres in the Lake Victoria Region;
Build institutional and human resource capacities at local and regional levels for the sustainability of improved water and sanitation services;
Upscale the benefits of water sector reforms to reach the local level in the participating urban centres;
Reduce the environmental impact of urbanization in the Lake Victoria Basin 
Phase I of LVWATSAN Initiatives were implemented in the following secondary towns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania:
Kisii, Homa Bay and Bondo (Kenya)
Masaka, Kyotera and Bugembe (Uganda)
Bukoba, Muleba and Bunda (Tanzania)
Mutukula (Tanzania – Uganda Border)
Considerable progress has been made in the implementation of LVWATSAN Phase I, with immediate interventions, designed to deliver immediate results, substantially completed and within a short time frame of two years, and the program is already on track to achieving the water and sanitation MDGs, in the initial seven towns, namely: Kisii and Homa Bay in Kenya, Nyendo/Ssenyange and Kyotera in Uganda, Bukoba and Muleba in Tanzania, and the border town of Mutukula. Key achievements of Phase I include:
Improved access to water and sanitation services
Strengthening capacity of Water Service Providers
Promoting access to adequate sanitation through micro credit schemes
Improving capacity for environmental aqnd solid waste management
Strengthening stakeholder participation and ownership through citywide multi-stakeholder platforms
Supporting strategic urban planning
Improving monitoring of water and sanitation coverage
Implementation of UIS (Urban Inequities Survey) in 17 secondary urban centres in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania towns have been completed and the results have been used to establish a GIS based information system.
In Kenya:
Water, Sanitation, Solid Waste Management and Drainage Services have, to a large extent, been addressed and are substantially completed in Kisii and Homa Bay
In Kisii, Intakes rehabilitated, installation of new pumps, Upgrading transformer, erecting 10 water kiosks, 10 VIP Latrines and 10 km of uPVC
In H/Bay, 1 km of PVC pipeline, installation of 10 tipping bins, 4 Waste Transfer Stations, construction of 10 VIP latrines in selected schools and public areas as well as construction of water kiosk
Work in progress and immediate interventions completed in the two towns of Bukoba and Muleba.
In Bukoba, 25 domestic water points and 7 VIP latrines, rehabilitation of three Water Storage Tanks, the Septic Tanks at Prison and at the Customs Intake, the supply and installation of pumps with the related civil works are complete
In Muleba, spring intake, 11 km raw water mains, a 680 cu.m storage reservoir and upgraded distribution System, 15 Domestic water points and 10 public VIP sanitation
Activities for the immediate interventions in the towns of Kyotera and Nyendo Masaka have been completed.
In Masaka, 20 VIP public sanitation (toilets and bathrooms), paving and drainage of the market, repair of solid waste management equipment and trucks and the re-construction of the slaughterhouse
In Kyotera, construction of the pipeline to the town, storage reservoir, distribution network completed, two boreholes have been successfully drilled near the town with estimated yields of 20m3/hr and 10m3/hr
Works in Bondo, Bugembe, Bunda and Mutukula on-going, with most under transition from formulation to implementation
Since the joining of Rwanda and Burundi in EAC, the countries have been enjoined in the LVWATSAN Initiative, and preliminary assessments were conducted in both countries to identify towns to be considered for inclusion in Phase II of the initiative. Phase II of LVWATSAN has been borne out of:
Replication: From the lessons learnt in the implementation of Phase I LVWATSAN Initiatives, it was necessary that the success cases be replicated while mitigating against the negative impacts
Improving Coverage: Phase I addressed the needs of 10 towns, and therefore the rest of the towns still required the implementation of the LVWATSAN Initiatives 
Expansion: The expansion project is to be implemented under Phase II to cover 15 towns, 3 from @ Partner State, to meet the MDGs and ensure the long term sustainability and physical interventions
To select the three secondary towns for each of the 5 Partner States, the following criteria of identification was adopted
Pop. Of 10,000 – 100,000 people
Located within the catchment area of Lake Victoria
Demonstrable need for water and sanitation
No any other major ongoing or planned WATSAN projects
Must demonstrate that the project will have significant impact on pollution reduction on the lake
Based on the above criteria, the following secondary towns have been selected:
Burundi: Ngozi, Muyinga and Kayanza
Kenya: Keroka, Kericho and Isbania
Rwanda: Nyanza, Kayonza and Nagatare
Tanzania: Segerema, Geita and Nansio
Uganda: Kayabwe –Buwama – Bukakata- Lambu, Mayuge-Ikulwe and Ntungamo 
Project Management framework has been arranged so that:
LVBC as the apex institution of EAC responsible for WATSAN projects in LV Basin, will be the Executing Agency
A Project Steering Committee has been constituted consisting of:
LVBC (Chair)
Directors of Water Services of the Partner States
ES of LV Fisheries Organization
ES of East African Development Bank
ES of LVRLAC ( LV Regional Local Authority Cooperation)
TA (Secretary)
The Consultant for the project formulation has been hired and the contract services commenced on 17th April 2009, launched on 20th April 2009 and will be in force for 8 months
For smooth operations of the project, assistance will be required from the Partner States on the following challenges
Identification of Focal Officers in the Focal Points, as PMUs, PIUs and MSFs
Design Standards and/or Practice Manuals
Coordination with Field Officers
Protocol in Accessing Focal Points 
The benefits to be derived from the project formulation will include
Identification of appropriate actions to be taken to address various challenges around LVB
Facilitation of mobilization of financial and material resources from both local and external support partners
Focus on pro-poor interventions in secondary urban towns
Project Expected Outputs
Project output will address the following thematic areas:
 Environmental Issues
Environmental considerations are an integral part of the water resources management. Options of addressing the localized pollution, at point sources, will be proposed and implemented to abate the effect of potential contamination. Means of enforcing already established environmental laws, for pollution control, effective water quality monitoring
 Institutional Issues
Countries in the Lake Victoria Basin are undergoing radical water sector reforms. These are meant to promote good governance and improve performance of the sector. The institutional structures will be analyzed to ensure that they are in conformity with separation of roles, decentralized, improve transparency through civic engagement, reducing political interference, introduction of commercialized operations, private-public sector partnerships etc. Where appropriate institutional framework are missing, proposals on the same will be made
Technical Issues
Proposals and implementation will be on infrastructural investment aimed at developing and managing water supply and sanitation services targeting the poor, including the appropriateness of technologies, O&M and issues of sustainability
 Economic/Financing Issues
Financing water supply and sanitation programmes is a critical issue in the basin. Proposals and implementation will therefore focus on regional efforts to bridge the financing gap in the sector. Issues of affordability by the poor, community level financing mechanisms involving social funds, access to credit, and cost sharing, as effective alternatives to assisting the poor gain access to potable water and adequate sanitation facilities, will be explored. In addition, getting the water tariff right is at the very core of improving water resources management and tariff structures, economic, environmental, financial and social considerations play a crucial role, while ensuring sustainability
Social Issues
The participation of beneficiaries in projects aimed at serving them with water supply and sanitation services is a critical issue. Social analysis will therefore ensure that users’ preferences for different levels of services, their willingness and ability to pay be investigated from the outset of the project design, and their commitment to the monitoring and maintenance of facilities. Other issues include consideration of gender equity and involvement of women in decision-making processes regarding water resources management; and education and sensitization programmes to create awareness among the population on the use and proper management of water resources is a key element in to heath improvement
Though emphasis will be laid in water supply and sanitation services, the objective of addressing environmental pollution issues in the basin requires that all agents of pollution be tackled including solid waste and storm water drainage. These will therefore be accorded equal priority by identifying the causes addressing the same
Project Funding
The financial resources necessary for the implementation Phase I of the programme were provided by,
the Government of the Netherlands,
the Governments of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania,
the local governments and utility companies in the towns; and
the programme beneficiaries.
By May 2009, the contributions amounted to slightly over US$D 29 Million
Phase II formulation has been funded by AWF of ADB at about 1 million Euros, while the implementation is also bound to be financed by the same development partner. The level of support will depend on the cost estimates of the project formulation from Consultant, though an estimate of 65 million Euros has been made
From the lessons learnt in both Phases I & II, a number of conclusions can be made, namely:
  • The implementation model that has been adapted to fast track immediate interventions and capacity building has worked well to achieve quick results in extending water and sanitation coverage. The scoping of these immediate interventions and preparation of tender documents is done as early as possible, so that implementation commences as soon as funds for the investment phase become available
  •  The Institutional arrangements (Project Management Units at the National Level, Project Implementation Units at the Town level and Multi-Stakeholder Forums) provide an effective model for national coordination, project management and community participation. It is important to establish the institutional structures as early as possible in the programme implementation cycle and to anchor them in existing government institutions such as the Regional Water Service Boards (in the case of Kenya, for example) and the Municipal Councils at the town level. These institutional bodies can become the focal points to build capacity at the town and local level, especially in the crucial area of tendering and contracting
  • The implementation of water and sanitation programmes in small towns is constrained by capacity gaps at the town level, and is extremely severe in some towns. The mechanisms and resources to build capacity in areas such as project management, procurement, utility management and service provision are not consistently available for the small towns. An effective water and sanitation programme therefore incorporates substantial capacity building component to address these capacity gaps, before the works to improve physical infrastructure commence
  • The towns are all at different levels in terms of institutional strength and weaknesses and the availability of human and financial resources. Sharing of experiences and information exchange has been immensely useful eg benchmarking of utility performance, has helped the low performing utilities to appreciate what is achievable, and work towards higher standards of performance in their strategic plans. An important lesson learnt is that a regional approach to training and capacity building is preferable, so that the towns can learn from each other from case studies, best practices anf information on what works and what does not, can be drawn from across the region. This is particularly important as the programme is expanded to new towns
  •  The secondary towns in the Lake Victoria Basin reveal all of the worst features of unplanned and haphazard development as a result of the absence of effective urban planning systems, and the capacity in the towns to prepare town plans is also very limited. Because of the inherent difficulty in designing physical infrastructure without a town plan, it has become necessary to provide training and capacity building in urban planning so that urban plans are quickly prepared to guide the future development of the towns and to facilitate the design of the infrastructure works
  • In addition to providing a tool to monitor progress in meeting MDGs in the project towns, the specialized monitoring tool which has been established has made a major contribution to improving the socio-economic knowledge base in the towns with considerable potential to improve strategic planning, capital budgeting and service delivery to the poor.
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